[167], A more contentious debate materialized over the status of Chinese immigrants; in January 1868, the Senate had ratified the Burlingame Treaty with China, allowing an unrestricted flow of Chinese into the country. Arthur issues a proclamation warning people not to settle on Oklahoma lands. He became a lawyer, served as an engineer in the American Civil War, and later became Collector of the Port of New York, where he was responsible for supervising the collecting of import duties on goods coming into the United States. [181] Since the end of Reconstruction, conservative white Democrats (or "Bourbon Democrats") had regained power in the South, and the Republican party dwindled rapidly as their primary supporters in the region, blacks, were disenfranchised. Chester Alan Arthur 21st President of the United States (September 19, 1881 to March 3, 1885) Nickname: "The Gentleman Boss"; "Elegant Arthur" Born: October 5, 1829, in Fairfield, Vermont Died: November 18, 1886, in New York, New York. [135], Arthur arrived in Washington, D.C. on September 21. (22) $121.72. This law created a 10-year ban on all Chinese immigration to the United States and prohibited Chinese immigrants already in the country from becoming U.S. citizens. His son Washington took over, supervising the construction project that took thirteen years and more than $15 million to complete (three times as long and twice as expensive as had been anticipated). [149] Republicans lost seats in the 1882 congressional elections, in which Democrats campaigned on the reform issue. [155] Arthur agreed with his party, and in 1882 called for the abolition of excise taxes on everything except liquor, as well as a simplification of the complex tariff structure. But, with one assassin's bullet, Arthur instead became the president, any questions of losing power forgotten. [102][103] In the state elections of 1879, he and Conkling worked to ensure that the Republican nominees for state offices would be men of Conkling's faction, who had become known as Stalwarts. "[159] Congress overrode his veto the next day[158] and the new law reduced the surplus by $19 million. Arthur, a Republican, had been vice president for 199 days when he succeeded to the presidency. [205] He managed a few public appearances until the end of 1885. [160] Republicans considered the law a success at the time, but later concluded that it contributed to their loss of seats in the elections of 1882. Chester Alan Arthur was born on October 5, 1829, in Fairfield, Vermont. However, after President Garfield was shot by Charles Guiteau, he passed away on September 19 in the year of 1881. They collected large amounts of money that came from taxes. [37] During his winter breaks, he served as a teacher at a school in Schaghticoke. Facts about Chester an Arthur 1: the life span Chester A Arthur was born on 5th October 1829 in Fairfield, Vermont and died on 18 November 1886. The Brooklyn Bridge was the first bridge to be built across the East River linking New York City and Brooklyn. Major Events During Chester A. Arthur's Presidency, James Monroe During the Revolutionary War, Ulysses S. Grant: Early Life, Education & Facts, President Ulysses S. Grant's Foreign Policy, Ulysses S. Grant: West Point & the Mexican-American War, The Cabinet of President Ulysses S. Grant, President Andrew Johnson: Biography, Accomplishments & Quotes, President Andrew Johnson's Domestic Policy, President Andrew Johnson: Early Life & Education, President James Madison: Domestic & Foreign Policy, President James Garfield: Facts & Biography, Who Was Millard Fillmore? Chester A. Arthur was born on October 5, 1829 in Fairfield, Vermont, and was one of the ten children of William Arthur and Malvina Stone. Illustration published in The New Eclectic History of the United States by M. E . Chester Alan Arthur was born on October 5, 1829 in Fairfield, Vermont. [119] Candidates for high office did not personally campaign in those days, but as state Republican chairman, Arthur played a part in the campaign in his usual fashion: overseeing the effort in New York and raising money. [121] The Republicans carried New York by 20,000 votes and, in an election with the largest turnout of qualified voters ever recorded78.4%they won the nationwide popular vote by just 7,018 votes. Copyright 2022. [49] The office was a patronage appointment of minor importance until the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, when New York and the other northern states were faced with raising and equipping armies of a size never before seen in American history. Chester A. Arthur served as America's twenty-first president from September 19, 1881, to March 4, 1885. Once in Washington he destroyed the mailed proclamation and issued a formal call for a special session. The United States and Luxembourg conclude an extradition treaty in New York. The Presidency of Chester Arthur spanned the period in United States history that encompasses the events of the Maturation Era or the Gilded Age. He also oversaw the establishment of the Naval War College and the Office of Naval Intelligence. copyright 2003-2023 Study.com. 4, 1885 Political Party Republican Party (1854-1886), Whig Party (Before 1856) Personal Info Born Oct. 5, 1829 Died Nov. 18, 1886 (at age 57) Religion Episcopal School Union College State and National Law School Profession In 1871, President Ulysses Grant (1822-1885), a Republican, named Arthur the customs collector for the Port of New York. [72] The Collector was responsible for hiring hundreds of workers to collect the tariffs due at the United States' busiest port. [207] Arthur was buried with his family members and ancestors in the Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York. He took on few assignments with the firm and was often too ill to leave his house. When the war broke out on July 27, 1862, three weeks after President Lincoln's call for 300,000 more men, Arthur was appointed quartermaster-general and oversaw the construction of a huge tent city in City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan, where thousands of men gathered, were provisioned, and sent to war. I have gained a better understanding of the American political system as well as the history of the system. While in office, Arthur rose above partisanship and in 1883 signed the Pendleton Act, which required government jobs to be distributed based on merit. Their dedication to corruption and injustice left an imprint on American politics. The number of Civil Service positions affected by the bill would later be expanded. Republicans were pleased with the committee's make-up but were surprised when, in December 1882, they submitted a report to Congress calling for tariff cuts averaging between 20 and 25%. [209], Arthur's post-presidency was the second-shortest of all presidents who lived past their presidencies, after that of James K. Polk who died just three months after leaving office. He served as quartermaster general of the New York Militia during the American Civil War. Arthur approves a bill to appoint a tariff commission; the commission eventually recommends tariff reductions. Being obscure, he is not counted among the Presidents whom . "[220] By 1975, however, Thomas C. Reeves would write that Arthur's "appointments, if unspectacular, were unusually sound; the corruption and scandal that dominated business and politics of the period did not tarnish his administration. Arthur issues a proclamation recommending the observance of the 100th anniversary of General George Washington returning his commission as commander-in-chief to the Continental Congress. The United States participates in an international conference establishing standard time. He proclaimed to onlookers: "I am a Stalwart, and Arthur will be President! [214] On April 5, 1882, Arthur was elected to the District of Columbia Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (MOLLUS) as a Third Class Companion (insignia number 02430[215]), the honorary membership category for militia officers and civilians who made significant contributions to the war effort. The assassin's bullet that wounded President James Garfield in July had claimed his life the day before. [205], After spending the summer of 1886 in New London, Connecticut, he returned home where he became seriously ill, and on November 16, ordered nearly all of his papers, both personal and official, burned. [131], More troubling was the lack of legal guidance on presidential succession: as Garfield lingered near death, no one was sure who, if anyone, could exercise presidential authority. Arthur is remembered primarily for three things: He was never elected to the presidency and two significant pieces of legislation, one positive and the other negative. After leaving office in 1885, Arthur returned to New York City and rejoined his law practice Arthur, Knevals & Ransom. [171][o], In the years following the Civil War, American naval power declined precipitously, shrinking from nearly 700 vessels to just 52, most of which were obsolete. [216], Union College awarded Arthur the honorary degree of LL.D. Chandler, an aggressive administrator, purged the Navy of wood-and-canvas warship supporters and created the Naval War College. [210], Several Grand Army of the Republic posts were named for Arthur, including Goff, Kansas,[211] Lawrence, Nebraska,[212] Medford, Oregon,[213] and Ogdensburg, Wisconsin. [191] Arthur initially resisted their efforts, but after Secretary of the Interior Henry M. Teller, an opponent of allotment, assured him that the lands were not protected, Arthur opened up the Crow Creek Reservation in the Dakota Territory to settlers by executive order in 1885. [189] The allotment system was favored by liberal reformers at the time, but eventually proved detrimental to Native Americans as most of their land was resold at low prices to white speculators. [218] The statue was dedicated in 1899 and unveiled by Arthur's sister, Mary Arthur McElroy. Displayed in the 1953 reconstruction of the boyhood home of Chester A. Arthur, the exhibit panels examine the life and career of the 21 st President of the United States, who was born in Vermont on October 5, 1829. Congress was unable to override the veto, but passed a new bill reducing the immigration ban to ten years. [196] In the months leading up to the 1884 Republican National Convention, however, Arthur began to realize that neither faction of the Republican party was prepared to give him their full support: the Half-Breeds were again solidly behind Blaine, while Stalwarts were undecided; some backed Arthur, with others considering Senator John A. Logan of Illinois. Brode Herndon, Arthur's physician, writes in his private diary, The President sick in body and soul. Arthur had been diagnosed that year with Bright's disease, a fatal kidney ailment; his health will deteriorate rapidly while being kept secret from the general public. **PRE-ORDER** The Chester House from Dept 56 Christmas Vacation Snow Village **SHIPS LATE NOVEMBER** $149. He withdrew troops from the Reconstruction states in order to restore local control and good will, a decision that many perceived read more, Ulysses Grant (1822-1885) commanded the victorious Union army during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and served as the 18th U.S. president from 1869 to 1877. [144] Of the Cabinet members Arthur had inherited from Garfield, only Secretary of War Robert Todd Lincoln remained for the entirety of Arthur's term. Major events during the Arthur administration included, civil service reform, an effort to combat postal fraud, unsuccessful tries at meaningful tariff reform and wasteful spending. [217], In 1898, the Arthur memorial statuea fifteen-foot (4.6m), bronze figure of Arthur standing on a Barre Granite pedestalwas created by sculptor George Edwin Bissell and installed at Madison Square, in New York City. Chester A. Arthur The 21st President of the United States Presidents George Washington John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson Martin Van Buren. David L. Anderson, "The Diplomacy of Discrimination: Chinese Exclusion, 18761882", New York State Republican Executive Committee, Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States, List of presidents of the United States by previous experience, Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, "Rating the Presidents: Washington to Clinton", "Top 10 Forgettable Presidents: Fail to the Chief; Chester A. Arthur", "Then Again: A Vermont politician faces the 'birthers'. [13] Malvina Stone met William Arthur when Arthur was teaching school in Dunham, Quebec, near the Vermont border. [139], Arthur quickly came into conflict with Garfield's cabinet, most of whom represented his opposition within the party. President Arthur became known as the ''Father of the Steel Navy'' as he pushed for the military to use new steel technology in building and expanding its capabilities. In 1848, after graduating from Union College, he taught at Schaghticoke in Rensselaer County. Its like a teacher waved a magic wand and did the work for me. He served from 1881 to 1885, taking office after the death of President James Garfield (R) in 1881. [71], In 1870, President Grant gave Conkling control over New York patronage, including the Custom House at the Port of New York. [145] Reformers feared Arthur, as a former supporter of the spoils system, would not commit to continuing the investigation into the scandal. [79] He was also popular within the Republican party as he efficiently collected campaign assessments from the staff and placed party leaders' friends in jobs as positions became available. Garfield won the Republican nomination for president in 1880, and Arthur was nominated for vice president to balance the ticket as an Eastern Stalwart. 0. [218] At the dedication, Secretary of War Elihu Root described Arthur as, "wise in statesmanship and firm and effective in administration," while acknowledging that Arthur was isolated in office and unloved by his own party. [133] Through the summer, Arthur refused to travel to Washington and was at his Lexington Avenue home when, on the night of September 19, he learned that Garfield had died. [39] While studying law, he continued teaching, moving closer to home by taking a job at a school in North Pownal, Vermont. Oct 5, 1829 - Nov 18, 1886 Chester Alan Arthur was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 21st president of the United States from 1881 to 1885. He previously served as the 20th vice president under President James A. Garfield.Arthur succeeded the presidency upon Garfield's death in September 1881two months after being shot by an assassin. in 1883. [77] In total, his income came to more than $50,000more than the president's salary, and more than enough for him to enjoy fashionable clothes and a lavish lifestyle. [64] He continued his law practice (now a solo practice after Gardiner's death) and his role in politics, becoming a member of the prestigious Century Club in 1867. [224], "Chester Alan Arthur" and "Chester Arthur" redirect here. Arthur signed the Pendleton Act, which banned salary kickbacks and required merit exams for any professional advancement. [108] Neither candidate commanded a majority of delegates and, deadlocked after thirty-six ballots, the convention turned to a dark horse, James A. Garfield, an Ohio Congressman and Civil War general who was neither Stalwart nor Half-Breed. Portrait of Chester Arthur, vice president to James Garfield. Arthur requested standardized time 6. $10,000 in 1870 is equal to $214,289 in present terms. [11] Her family was primarily of English and Welsh descent, and her maternal grandfather, Uriah Stone, had served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. When the Brooklyn Bridge opened, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world and one of the most revolutionary structures of the era. After graduating in 1848, he became a schoolteacher and studied law at the State and National Law School (now defunct) in Ballston Spa, New York. "[36] During his time at school, he gained his first political inclinations and supported the Whig Party. Grover Cleveland is inaugurated as the twenty-second President of the United States. [105] Arthur and the machine had rebuked Hayes and their intra-party rivals, but Arthur had only a few days to enjoy his triumph when, on January 12, 1880, his wife died suddenly while he was in Albany organizing the political agenda for the coming year. After James Garfield was assassinated in 1881, Chester A. Arthur became President of the United States. Journalist Alexander McClure wrote, "No man ever entered the Presidency so profoundly and widely distrusted as Chester Alan Arthur, and no one ever retired more generally respected, alike by political friend and foe. [191] Arthur's successor, Grover Cleveland, finding that title belonged to the Native Americans, revoked Arthur's order a few months later. By the time of Garfield's assassination, most political observers thought that Arthur had lost any power or influence that he did have with the president. After Rutherford Hayes became president, he ousted Arthur from the job in 1878 in an attempt to reform the New York Custom House and spoils system. In 1871, an era of political machines and patronage, Arthur was named to the powerful position of customs collector for the Port of New York. [83] In 1876, Conkling was a candidate for president at the 1876 Republican National Convention, but the nomination was won by reformer Rutherford B. Hayes on the seventh ballot. He attended Union College in Schenectady, New York, graduating in 1848. He remained at the job until 1870 at a salary of $10,000 a year. Political corruption permeated American . There, his health continued to deteriorate, and on November 18, 1886, he died at age 57 at his home. Political opponent of the President and former secretary of state James G. Blaine defeats Arthur for the nomination; John A. Logan is selected as vice president. "[76], The Senate confirmed Arthur's appointment; as Collector he controlled nearly a thousand jobs and received compensation as great as any federal officeholder. [147] Before the second trial began, Arthur removed five federal office holders who were sympathetic with the defense, including a former senator. . Late night strolls 7. Before 1880, Chester Arthur was a minor New York City politician who was a protg of Sen. Roscoe Conkling of the Empire State. [93] Hayes then submitted the appointment of Theodore Roosevelt Sr., L. Bradford Prince, and Edwin Merritt (all supporters of Conkling's rival William M. Evarts) to the Senate for confirmation as their replacements. This man was Chester A. Arthur. His Baptist minister father, William Arthur, hailed from Ireland, and his mother, Malvina Stone Arthur, was from Vermont. In the White House, Arthur became known for his sartorial style and taste for fine furnishings. Twenty-first President, 1881-1885. It was widely evaded. All rights reserved. [124], The Senate in the 47th United States Congress was divided among 37 Republicans, 37 Democrats, one independent (David Davis) who caucused with the Democrats, one Readjuster (William Mahone), and four vacancies. Chester Alan Arthur was born October 5, 1830, in Fairfield, Vermont. [82], Arthur's four-year term as Collector expired on December 10, 1875, and Conkling, then among the most powerful politicians in Washington, arranged his protg's reappointment by President Grant. They wanted some sort of reforms. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. "[129] Guiteau was found to be mentally unstable, and despite his claims to be a Stalwart supporter of Arthur, they had only a tenuous connection that dated from the 1880 campaign. [43] The argument was successful, and after several appeals was upheld by the New York Court of Appeals in 1860. [169] The bill passed the Senate and House by overwhelming margins, but this as well was vetoed by Arthur, who concluded the 20-year ban to be a breach of the renegotiated treaty of 1880. [52] The closest Arthur came to the front was when he traveled south to inspect New York troops near Fredericksburg, Virginia, in May 1862, shortly after forces under Major General Irvin McDowell seized the town during the Peninsula Campaign. He is the only president to date who served two non-consecutive terms, and also the only Democratic president to win election during the period of Republican read more, Departing from the monarchical tradition of Britain, the founding fathers of the United States created a system in which the American people had the power and responsibility to select their leader. The United States recognizes the independence of Korea, although Korea's future is uncertain because of Chinese, Russian, and Japanese manipulations. The President Chester A. Arthur State Historic Site was the first historic site owned by the State of Vermont. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. [128][l], While in Albany on July 2, Arthur learned that Garfield had been shot. [99] Conkling opposed the confirmation of Merritt and Burt when the Senate reconvened in February 1879, but Merritt was approved by a vote of 3125, as was Burt by 3119, giving Hayes his most significant civil service reform victory. [60] In the presidential election of 1864, Arthur and Murphy raised funds from Republicans in New York, and they attended the second inauguration of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. Arthur's status in the administration diminished when, a month before inauguration day, he gave a speech before reporters suggesting the election in Indiana, a swing state, had been won by Republicans through illegal machinations. The original designer, John Roebling, died of an infection caused by an injury he received only days after having secured permission to begin his project. [200] Gray would serve on the Court for over 20 years until resigning in 1902. Congress passes the Edmunds Act, which excludes bigamists and polygamists from voting and holding office, and establishes a five-man Utah commission to supervise voting in the territory of Utah. The son of an Irish-born Baptist minister who had immigrated to the U.S., Chester Arthur was born in Fairfield, Vermont, in 1829. A revised version of the Chinese Exclusion Act, which reduces the period of non-immigration to ten years but maintains the ban on Chinese citizenship, becomes law. [161], During the Garfield administration, Secretary of State James G. Blaine attempted to invigorate United States diplomacy in Latin America, urging reciprocal trade agreements and offering to mediate disputes among the Latin American nations. Along with overseeing a major renovation of the White House, President Arthur saw three major events happen during his administration: These three accomplishments ensured Arthur that he would have something of a legacy. [151], At first, the act applied only to 10% of federal jobs and, without proper implementation by the president, it could have gone no further. The court renders a verdict in the second Star-Route case. Chester Arthur was born in North Fairfield, Vermont. "[154], With high revenue held over from wartime taxes, the federal government had collected more than it spent since 1866; by 1882 the surplus reached $145 million. Chester Alan Arthur: 5th President of the United States. [42], When Arthur joined the firm, Culver and New York attorney John Jay (the grandson of the Founding Father John Jay) were pursuing a habeas corpus action against Jonathan Lemmon, a Virginia slaveholder who was passing through New York with his eight slaves. During the American Civil War (1861-1865), he was quartermaster for the state of New York, responsible for organizing food and supplies for Union soldiers. Early in the Civil War he served as quartermaster general of New York state. [200] Arthur nominated Horace Gray, a distinguished jurist from the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court to replace him, and the nomination was easily confirmed. [14] They married in Dunham on April 12, 1821, soon after meeting. How Did Chester A. Arthur Become President? In the federal presidential election, Grover Cleveland defeats James G. Blaine. [192] To rejuvenate his health outside the confines of Washington, Arthur and some political friends traveled to Florida in April 1883. [100] Arthur immediately took advantage of the resulting free time to work for the election of Edward Cooper as New York City's next mayor. Arthur and Governor Cleveland walked across the bridge along with the 7th regiment as part of the celebration. [46] Later that year, he started a new law partnership with a friend, Henry D. Gardiner, and traveled with him to Kansas to consider purchasing land and setting up a law practice there. [67] Arthur began to devote more of his time to politics and less to law, and in 1869 he became counsel to the New York City Tax Commission, appointed when Republicans controlled the state legislature. Chester A. Arthur (b. October 5, 1829, in Fairfield, Vermont) was the 21st president of the United States. On September 21, he returned to Long Branch to take part in Garfield's funeral, and then joined the funeral train to Washington. His mother, Malvina Stone Arthur, was born in New Hampshire. Chester Arthur (1829-1886), the 21st U.S. president, took office after the death of President James Garfield (1831-1881). [10], Arthur's father, William Arthur, was born in 1796 in Dreen, Cullybackey, County Antrim, Ireland to a Presbyterian family of Scots-Irish descent. [196] Reform-minded Republicans, friendlier to Arthur after he endorsed civil service reform, were still not certain enough of his reform credentials to back him over Senator George F. Edmunds of Vermont, who had long favored their cause. As the economy soured after the Panic of 1873, Chinese immigrants were blamed for depressing workmen's wages; in reaction Congress in 1879 attempted to abrogate the 1868 treaty by passing the Chinese Exclusion Act, but President Hayes vetoed it. In 1856, Arthur courted Ellen Herndon, the daughter of William Lewis Herndon, a Virginia naval officer. In his first annual presidential address to Congress in 1881, Arthur requested civil service reform legislation and Pendleton again introduced his bill, but Congress did not pass it. [33][f][34], Arthur spent some of his childhood years living in the New York towns of York, Perry, Greenwich, Lansingburgh, Schenectady, and Hoosick. Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 - November 18, 1886) was a politician of the United States who served as the twenty-first President. Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829[b] November 18, 1886) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 21st president of the United States from 1881 to 1885. The act establishes the Republicans as the party in favor of higher protective tariffs. The President chester A. Arthur State Historic Site was the 21st U.S. President, office... Era or the Gilded Age, chester A. Arthur served as a teacher a! From taxes proclamation and issued a formal call for a special session House, Arthur learned Garfield. 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Soon after meeting supporters and created the Naval War College and the office of Intelligence! Veto, but passed a New bill reducing the immigration ban to ten years ( b. 5... Members and ancestors in the Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York City and rejoined law.

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